ALS : Alternative Language Services
LEP : Limited-English-proficient. An LEP student is a student who:
- was not born in the US or whose native language is a language other than English and comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant; or
- is a Native American or Alaska Native or who is a native resident of the outlying areas and comes from an environment where a language other than English has had a significant impact on such an individual's level of English language proficiency; or
- is migratory and whose native language is other than English and comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant; and
- who has sufficient difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language and whose difficulties may deny such an individual the opportunity to learn successfully in classrooms where the language of instruction is English or to participate fully in our society.
ELL : English language learner. A national-origin-minority student who is limited-English-proficient. This term is often preferred over limited-English-proficient (LEP) as it highlights accomplishments rather than deficits.
English as a Second Language (ESL) : A program of techniques, methodology and special curriculum designed to teach ELL students English language skills, which may include listening, speaking, reading, writing, study skills, content vocabulary, and cultural orientation. ESL instruction is usually in English with little use of native language. Instruction is specifically intended to help the non-English speaking students acquire and use English.
Sheltered English Instruction : An instructional approach used to make academic instruction in English understandable to ELL students. In the sheltered classroom, teachers use physical activities, visual aids, and the environment to teach vocabulary for concept development in mathematics, science, social studies, and other subjects.
- Structured English Immersion Program : The goal of this program is acquisition of English language skills so that the ELL student can succeed in an English-only mainstream classroom. All instruction in an immersion strategy program is in English. Teachers have specialized training in meeting the needs of ELL students, possessing either a bilingual education or ESL teaching credential and/or training, and strong receptive skills in the students' primary language.
- Partial English Immersion : Instruction is mainly in English. The teacher may make some clarifying comments and instructions in the student's native/first language. Teachers have specialized training in meeting the needs of ELL students, possessing either a bilingual education or ESL teaching credential and/or training.
- Total English Immersion (Submersion Program): A submersion program places ELL students in a regular English-only program with little or no support services on the theory that they will pick up English naturally. Teachers have little or no specialized training in meeting the needs of ELL students, and possess neither a bilingual education nor as ESL teaching credential. This program should not be confused with a structured English immersion program.
Dual Language/Bilingual Program : Also known as two-way or developmental, the goal of these bilingual programs is for students to develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction in English and another language in a classroom that is usually comprised of half native English speakers and half native speakers of the other language.